Veille du 09 novembre 2020

Santé et sécurité au travail: une victoire pour les étudiants stagiaires | JDM.

Angoisse chez les stagiaires à l’UQAM – Montréal Campus.

Thompson, Kenneth J. The perils of practicum in the time of COVID-19: A graduate student’s perspective. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2020;12(S1):S151-S152. doi:10.1037/tra0000752.

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed competing demands on many graduate students working at practica. Though graduate programs seek to minimize potential sources of exposure to the virus, some practicum sites rely on students as essential staff. At the same time, although some students may wish to eliminate this source of potential exposure to the virus, other students may consider the opportunity to fulfill their practicum duties at a time of crisis an important part of their educational experience. Guidance published by the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers regarding internship students provides at least a starting point for programs to develop policies that allow students to make informed decisions about their practicum training.

Prilop, Christopher Neil, Weber, Kira Elena, Kleinknecht, Marc. Effects of digital video-based feedback environments on pre-service teachers’ feedback competence. Computers in Human Behavior. 2020;102. 120-131. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2019.08.011.

The present study investigates the added value of blended digital video-based feedback environments in fostering pre-service teachers’ feedback competence on teaching during a practicum. Pre-service teachers practised providing their peers with feedback on their classroom management in traditional face-to-face feedback sessions (control group, n = 65) or blended digital video-based environments with an expert present (V-Feedback+, n = 22) or without (V-Feedback, n = 16). Before and after the practicum, a video-based tool was applied that required pre-service teachers to provide written feedback to a teacher concerning fictitious classroom events. Written feedbacks were analysed by applying quantitative content analysis. Feedback competence was assessed with six categories: assessment criteria; specificity; suggestions; questions; first person; and positive/negative emphasis. This study demonstrated that digital video-based environments can elicit stronger effects than traditional face-to-face settings, especially when combined with expert feedback. Results from the pre- and post-tests revealed that V-Feedback and V-Feedback + participants provided more specific feedback than the control group. V-Feedback + participants provided feedback containing more high quality suggestions than the V-Feedback group. This study illustrates how pre-service teachers’ feedback competence can be fostered in teaching practicums using digital video-based feedback environments.

Fronapfel, Brighid H, Demchak, MaryAnn. School’s out for COVID-19: 50 ways BCBA trainees in special education settings can accrue independent fieldwork experience hours during the pandemic. Behavior Analysis in Practice. 2020;13(2):312-320. doi:10.1007/s40617-020-00434-x.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide executive orders closing schools, many trainees completing their supervised independent fieldwork in educational settings lost the ability to accrue hours linked to restricted activities of a therapeutic and instructional nature with students (i.e., clients). Given the impact on trainees of the pandemic restrictions, we present 50 suggestions for trainees in school settings to continue to accrue hours for both restricted and unrestricted activities throughout the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Davies, Maree, Heyward, Paul. Between a hard place and a hard place: A study of ethical dilemmas experienced by student teachers while on practicum. British Educational Research Journal. 2019;45(2):372-387. doi:10.1002/berj.3505.

Assisting student teachers to understand the ethical nature of their work and developing the moral vocabulary to deal with ethical dilemmas of practice are vital components of initial teacher education. The study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by 100 student teachers in their final year of their teaching degrees while on practicum. The data examined were written reflective statements of each of the 100 students’ ethical dilemmas. The study found that, while some types of ethical dilemmas seem universal, a more situated theory of initial teacher education ethics is required to understand the particular sociocultural factors that inform the nature of teacher practice in context-specific environments. Our study highlights the need for preservice teacher education focusing on student teachers finding their own authentic ethical voice, through the examination of ethical dilemmas via critical thinking and the wider examination of the political, historical and social contexts that led to the dilemma. The dilemmas faced by the students were likely to be, in part, identifiable with fellow student teachers in other countries, but we argue that dilemmas are strongly contextualised. Our study is useful for educators working with student teachers in the practicum environment to instil confidence in student teachers to follow their own moral compass.

Nelson B, Medek S, Kharofa J, Struve T, Barrett W. The Impact of a Multidisciplinary Third-Year Oncology Elective Rotation on Decisions to Pursue Oncologic Careers and Oncology ExposureInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2020;108(4):886-890. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.06.027

The majority of oncologic care is provided in the outpatient setting, yet at many medical schools, the dominant means of exposure to oncology occurs during inpatient rotations. Given the multidisciplinary nature of the specialty, radiation oncology departments are well positioned to lead outpatient oncology rotations within medical schools. Since 1992, the University of Cincinnati’s Department of Radiation Oncology has administered a 2-week, third-year clinical oncology elective. This report characterizes the rotation and evaluates the impact of the rotation on students’ oncology exposure and career choices over the past 10 years.
Methods and Materials: A list of medical students who participated in the MS3 clinical oncology elective rotation from 2008 to 2018 was reviewed. A search engine was used to locate the physicians and identify their specialty choices. A survey of 7 questions was distributed to the oncologists to evaluate how the rotation influenced their oncology exposure and career choice.Results: Two hundred sixty-eight medical students participated in the MS3 Clinical Oncology Specialty Clerkship from 2008 to 2018. Thirty-nine students (15%) ultimately pursued a career in oncology. Seventy-four percent of the oncologists are radiation oncologists. Eighty-eight percent of the physicians surveyed had a positive to very positive experience with the rotation. The rotation was the first clinical exposure to the field of oncology for 48% of the respondents and the first exposure to the field of radiation oncology for 69% of the physicians. Seventy-two percent of the oncologists attributed the MS3 rotation as providing a moderate or great deal of early exposure to the field of oncology.
Conclusions: Radiation oncology departments are well positioned to lead multidisciplinary, ambulatory oncology electives within US medical schools. A majority of participating oncologists viewed the rotation positively and attributed the rotation with their entrance into oncology.

Bautista-Biddle, Martha M, Pereira, Lila M, Williams, Stephanie N. The fallacy of « good training experiences »: The need to protect psychology trainees from harassment and the imperative of multiculturally competent supervision. Training and Education in Professional Psychology. 2020;No Pagination Specified. doi:10.1037/tep0000353.

The supervisory relationship is a catalyst of learning for trainees attending graduate programs in psychology. This article uses vignettes to depict the experiences of three trainees whose physical protection and/or emotional well-being was deprioritized by their supervisors, to support the notion of « good training experiences. » These examples show how trainees’ experiences of gender-based harassment, sexual identity-based microaggressions, and racial insensitivity can impact the supervisory relationship, treatment of clients, and professional development of the trainee if handled incorrectly. The authors highlight the role of professional ethics, workplace protections, and the importance of diversity within the supervisory relationship. The authors use their personal experiences as well as literature to describe the specific supervisory needs of female, LGBTQ+, and Black trainees. Recommendations are discussed to promote individual and systemic changes that could be implemented by supervisors and psychology graduate training programs to better meet the needs and development of diverse graduate psychology trainees.

Street, Lisa A, Moyle, Tressa L. Supervision strategies for social work students: Managing faith and spirituality in addictions practice. Social Work & Christianity. 2019;46(3):87-109. doi:10.34043/swc.v46i3.84.

Field placement in addictions treatment offers social work students several diverse and rich opportunities for learning. Addictions practice exposes students to spirituality as a domain of health and well-being foundational to many recovery programs. For practicum students, learning to manage personal religious beliefs and spirituality can be a significant need in field supervision. Based on the supervisory experiences of a field instructor and field coordinator who have collaborated in field education for 10 years (as well as were colleagues on a family drug court team prior), this article presents strategies for helping students manage their personal beliefs about faith and spirituality in addictions practice. Supervision strategies presented include: (a) separating spirituality from religion, (b) reframing addiction viewed as sin, (c) offering reflective feedback, (d) self-reflecting through journaling, process recording, and other assignments, and (e) promoting experiential activities to connect personally with people of different backgrounds.

Stuart E, O’Leary D, Rowntree R, et al. “Challenges in experiential learning during transition to clinical practice: A comparative analysis of reflective writing assignments during general practice, paediatrics and psychiatry clerkships.”Medical Teacher. 2020;42(11):1275-1282. doi:10.1080/0142159X.2020.1803250

This study explored the reflective writing (RW) of senior medical students across a co-ordinated reflection education programme in General Practice, Paediatrics and Psychiatry clerkships during their transition to clinical clerkships. The study compared RW themes from within and across three clerkships in order to understand the influence clerkships had on experiential learning and developing professional identity. All medical students in their penultimate year were invited to participate in the study. 135 reflection assignments were analysed. A qualitative thematic analysis of students’ RW was performed. An inductive approach was used and data saturation was achieved. Clerkship specific themes were the intimacy of the experience in General Practice, the powerlessness students felt and the challenge of delivering family centred care in Paediatrics and the sense of perceived risk in Psychiatry. Common themes across the three clerkships were of emotional struggles in developing a professional identity. There is an educational need for developmental space for students during General Practice, greater focus on preparing students for relationship building during Paediatrics and addressing stigma and personal safety issues in students during the Psychiatry clerkships. Across clerkships there is a need for better use of evidence based pedagogies to support emotional development.

Liu H, Mi XF, Huang ZZ, Heng BC, Shen WL. Challenges and strategies in developing team-based learning in Chinese medical education.Medical Teacher. 2020;42(11):1243-1249. doi:10.1080/0142159X.2020.1801995

Team-based learning (TBL) is gradually being integrated into Chinese medical education. This study reports its current application status in Chinese medical schools, as well as the underlying challenges and strategies to improve TBL application. We screened publication databases and surveys to investigate TBL usage and concerns regarding TBL application by Chinese medical educators. Articles published by 79 Chinese medical schools include 163 articles among 20 topic areas of basic medicine and 226 articles among 16 clerkship disciplines. The opinions of 123 Chinese medical teachers were solicited from 46 medical schools in 26 provinces/municipalities. Approximately less than half of Chinese medical schools used TBL in basic medicine or clerkship disciplines. Among these, only 10% of schools reported TBL usage in both clerkship disciplines and basic medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that public awareness of TBL, executive support, professional training, sharing of resources and integration of multiple disciplines are critical factors in facilitating TBL application, and in recruiting and developing TBL teachers. TBL application in Chinese medical education is limited. Executive/financial support and establishment of a platform to provide technical support, share resources and regulate TBL practice quality will facilitate TBL application in Chinese medical education.

Son HK. Effects of S-PBL in Maternity Nursing Clinical Practicum on Learning Attitude, Metacognition, and Critical Thinking in Nursing Students: A Quasi-Experimental DesignInt J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(21):E7866. Published 2020 Oct 27. doi:10.3390/ijerph17217866

Due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, there are many restrictions in effect in clinical nursing practice. Since effective educational strategies are required to enhance nursing students’ competency in clinical practice, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of simulation problem-based learning (S-PBL). A quasi-experimental control group pretest-post-test design was used. Nursing students were allocated randomly to the control group (n = 31) and the experimental group (n = 47). Students in the control group participated in a traditional maternity clinical practicum for a week, while students in the experimental group participated S-PBL for a week. The students in the experimental group were trained in small groups using a childbirth patient simulator (Gaumard® Noelle® S554.100, Miami, USA) based on a standardized scenario related to obstetric care. The students’ learning attitude, metacognition, and critical thinking were then measured via a self-reported questionnaire. Compared with the control group, the pre-post difference in learning attitude and critical thinking increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the experimental group. S-PBL was found to be an effective strategy for improving nursing students’ learning transfer. Thus, S-PBL that reflects various clinical situations is recommended to improve the training in maternal health nursing.

Saiz-Linares, Angela, Susinos-Rada, Teresa. Revisiting reflection in pre-service teacher training: Let’s rethink through a practicum in Spain. Reflective Practice. 2020;21(5):629-645. doi:10.1080/14623943.2020.1785414.

This article presents the findings of research in which a practicum programme based on a reflective and research-based teacher training approach has been designed, implemented, and evaluated. The purpose is to analyse the educational design and its ability to facilitate teacher training based on active and reflective learning. Methodologically, the research has the format of an evaluative case study. The data come from interviews, observations, and document analysis. The analysis reveals some key aspects, which explain the effectiveness of the proposal: ‘pedagogical concerns’ as activators of reflection, the complementarity of various reflective strategies, dialogical relationships, and the balance between planning and flexibility. The relevance of our work relates to the need to review the practical training of pre-service teachers in Spain, updating the principles towards reflective professionals and also to facilitate professional practice informed by research.

Rocque, Jules. « L’incidence d’un stage international sur les apprentissages et le développement des pratiques professionnelles en formation initiale d’étudiantes en travail social et en éducation. » Alterstice – Revue Internationale de la Recherche Interculturelle [En ligne], 9.1 (2020): 109-124. Web. 9 nov. 2020

Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude qualitative portant sur l’expérience de cinq étudiantes en formation initiale au sein d’une école de travail social ou d’une faculté d’éducation d’une université canadienne qui ont participé à un projet de mobilité internationale interdisciplinaire de cinq semaines au Sénégal en 2016. L’étude avait pour objectif d’examiner l’incidence d’un tel stage sur leur formation professionnelle et leur capacité d’adaptation dans un contexte international et interculturel. Un entretien semi-directif a eu lieu sur le terrain pendant le stage et les étudiantes ont tenu un journal de bord tout au long de leur séjour en Afrique. Un second entretien a eu lieu un an après le stage avec les cinq participantes. Les résultats confirment que la participation à un stage international a permis aux étudiantes de mettre à l’épreuve leurs connaissances théoriques et leur pratique professionnelle en développement en milieu interculturel, d’avoir une meilleure compréhension socioculturelle d’un nouvel environnement et d’exercer leur capacité d’adaptation. Les stagiaires ont aussi pu développer une sensibilité à l’autre, ont acquis de nouvelles connaissances et ont développé différentes capacités qui leur auront permis de prendre confiance en leurs compétences une fois de retour dans leur pays d’origine. Les étudiantes ont fait appel à une variété de stratégies afin de s’adapter à leur nouveau milieu : passer du temps seules, se divertir avec les membres de leur famille d’accueil, dialoguer avec les gens du milieu professionnel et faire du tourisme, entre autres. Les stagiaires affirment à l’unanimité qu’une telle expérience devrait être offerte à d’autres pour enrichir leur formation initiale et les motiver à s’engager davantage dans les grands enjeux internationaux qui touchent l’ensemble des citoyens de la planète.

Givron, Hélène et Martin Desseilles. « Decline of Empathy after the First Internship: Towards a More Functional Empathy? » Santé mentale au Québec, volume 45, numéro 1, printemps 2020, p. 183–200.

La recherche a identifié un déclin d’empathie à mesure que les études en médecine progressent. Parmi les différentes hypothèses, une explication souvent évoquée est le premier contact avec les stages. Cette étude quasi expérimentale a été conçue pour examiner l’impact du premier stage chez les étudiants en médecine. Notre question de recherche était : « dans quelle mesure le premier stage peut diminuer les scores d’empathie de nos étudiants en médecine de 3e année » ? Nous avons mesuré l’empathie de 220 étudiants de 3e année en médecine avant et après leur premier stage (de 3 semaines) en médecine générale. En utilisant la méthodologie des enquêtes en ligne, nous avons recueilli des données sociodémographiques, d’empathie (Interpersonal Reactivity Index [IRI]) et de souhait de choix de carrière. Les analyses statistiques ont révélé une diminution légère, mais significative des sous-échelles « fantaisie », « intérêt empathique » et « détresse personnelle » de l’IRI. Ces résultats suggèrent un impact potentiel du premier stage sur les compétences empathiques. Le fait que le score des étudiants à la sous-échelle « détresse personnelle » (qui caractérise une difficulté à gérer les émotions) diminue est en réalité plutôt une bonne chose. Ces données soulèvent donc la question de la « fonction » de cette perte d’empathie. Le fait que ce score diminue après le premier stage pourrait indiquer un changement positif pour ces étudiants en médecine : vers une meilleure régulation émotionnelle et une empathie affective plus fonctionnelle.